Contents

# ten percent of 300

Answer: Option D

cost price $=4700+800=5500$

selling price $=5800$

Answer: Option D

Then, cost price of $20$ articles $=20$

Therefore, selling price of $x$ articles $=20$

$\Rightarrow$ selling price of $20$ articles $=\dfrac<20Г—20>=\dfrac<400>$

= cost price of $20$ articles

Answer: Option A

Solution 1 Let cost price $=x$

selling price $=y$

selling price $=2y$

In this case, amount of increase in the selling price is equal to amount of increase in the profit. Therefore,

$\Rightarrow$ selling price - profit = profit

$\Rightarrow$ cost price = profit

$\Rightarrow$ profit percent $=100\%$ Solution 3 ($2$ sp - cp) $=3$(sp - cp)

# ten percent of 300

1mile = 8/5 kms. 5 miles = 5 × 8/5 = 8 kms.

So, 4 kms of 5 miles = 4 kms of 8kms = (4/8) × 100% = 50%

1 liter = 1000ml, 2.5 liters = 2.5 × 1000 = 2500 ml.

So, 300 ml of 2.5 liters = (300/2500) × 100% = 12%

**If 50% of a number is added to 50, the result is the original number. Find the number.**

Let N be the number.

So, 50% of N + 50 = N

So, N/2 + 50 = N, so N – N/2 = 50, so N/2 = 50 and N= 100

**If x is 25% more than y, then express y in terms of x**

So x = y + (25/100) × y, So x = (125/100) × y,

Now, multiply 100 to (4/5) x and insert the percent symbol % to express y in terms of percentage of x:

(4/5) × 100 % of x = 80 % of x.

**A pen costs 10 times as much as a pencil. Find by what percent is the pencil’s cost less than the pen.**

let pencil cost $10. So, pen costs $100.

From lesson no. 1:

% less = (difference/bigger number) × 100% = (90/100) × 100% = 90%

**The price of a book reduces by 20%. By what percent can a book keeper buy more books for a same outlay on the books?**

outlay is N × P, in which N is number of books bought and P is the price of each book.

Let Initial outlay be 100 × 100.

Final outlay will be n × 80; in which n is the increased number of books and 80 is the reduced price.

Since expenditures are same, so

100 × 100 = n × 80, so n = (100 × 100)/80 = 125

So, 25% more books can be bought for a same outlay.

**Of all the employees in a company, 40% are graduate officers and 20% are junior graduate officers. What percent of the graduate officers are employees that are not junior graduate officers?**

Take number of employees as 100.

Officers are 40 and junior officers are 20

(Note that percent of junior officers is expressed out of employees in the company and not out of officers. Avoid error of proximity)

Officers that are not junior graduates = 40 – 20 = 20

Now, this 20 is what percent of 40 = (20/40) × 100% = 50%

**In an alcohol solution of 8 liters the concentration of alcohol is 25%. To make alcohol 20% concentrate, how many liters of water must be added?**

initially, alcohol = 25% of 8 = (25/100) × 8 = 2

New strength of alcohol is 20% of (N + 8), where N is liters of water to be added.

Volume of alcohol remains same, only concentration changes.

So, 20% of (N + 8) = 2, i.e. (20/100) × (N +8) = 2, So (1/5) ( N + 8) = 2, So N + 8 = 10

So, 2 liters of water added will change alcohol concentration to 20%

- C1 and C2 are the initial and final concentrations of alcohol and
- V1 and V2 are the initial and final volumes of the solution.

So, n + 8 = 200/20 = 10, so n + 8 = 10, n = 2

So, add two liters of water.

**In a class of 40 students, boys’ strength is increased by 30% and that of girls by 20%. The class size grows to 60. What percentage of boys are girls?**

let number of boys be x and number of girls be y.

So, x + y = 40, so y = 40 – x

Increased number of boys = x + 30% of x = x + 0.3x = 1.3x

Increased number of girls = y + 20% of y = y + 0.2y = 1.2y

Plugging y = 40 – x in 2:

1.3x + 1.2 (40 – x) = 60, So 1.3x + 48 – 1.2x = 60,

So 1.3x – 1.2x = 60 – 48, So 0.1x = 12, so x = 120

**The price of a book decreases by 20%. By what percent now, can a book-keeper purchase more books for the same outlay as before?**

Short-cut: Apply successive percent change formula:

Let x = -20% and y be the percent increase. Net percent change is 0 as the expenditure should be same before and after price changes.

(x + y + xy/100)% = net percent change.

y – y/5 = 20, 4y/5 = 20, y = 25%

the book keeper can buy 25% more books for the same outlay.

**The length of a rectangle increases by 25% and the breadth decreases by 20%. Find by what percent the area changes**

Apply net percent change:

(x + y + xy/100)% = net percent change.

% Increase in length is x = +25%,

And % decrease in breadth is y = -20%

Net percent change = 25 – 20 – (25 × 20/100) = 5 – 5 = 0%

Therefore, the area of the rectangle does not change.

# How I Learned to Read 300 Percent Faster in 20 Minutes

How much more could you get done if you completed all of your required reading in one-third or one-fifth the time?

Increasing reading speed is a process of controlling fine motor movement -- period.

This post is a condensed overview of principles I taught to undergraduates at Princeton University in 1998 at a seminar called the "PX Project." The below was written several years ago, so it's worded like Ivy-Leaguer pompous-ass prose, but the results are substantial. In fact, while on an airplane in China two weeks ago, I helped Glenn McElhose increase his reading speed 34 percent in less than five minutes.

I have never seen the method fail. Here's how it works.

The PX Project, a single three-hour cognitive experiment, produced an average increase in reading speed of 386 percent.

It was tested with speakers of five languages, and even dyslexics were conditioned to read technical material at more than 3,000 words-per-minute (wpm), or 10 pages per minute. One page every six seconds. By comparison, the average reading speed in the U.S. is 200-300 wpm (one-half to one page per minute), with the top one percent of the population reading over 400 wpm.

If you understand several basic principles of the human visual system, you can eliminate inefficiencies and increase speed while improving retention.

To perform the exercises in this post and see the results, you will need: a book of 200+ pages that can lay flat when open, a pen, and a timer (a stop watch with alarm or kitchen timer is ideal). You should complete the 20 minutes of exercises in one session.

**First, several definitions and distinctions specific to the reading process:**

**A) Synopsis:** **You must minimize the number and duration of fixations per line to increase speed.**

You do not read in a straight line, but rather in a sequence of saccadic movements (jumps). Each of these saccades ends with a fixation, or a temporary snapshot of the text within you focus area (approx. the size of a quarter at eight inches from reading surface). Each fixation will last one-fourth to one-half seconds in the untrained subject. To demonstrate this, close one eye, place a fingertip on top of that eyelid, and then slowly scan a straight horizontal line with your other eye-you will feel distinct and separate movements and periods of fixation.

**B) Synopsis: You must eliminate regression and back-skipping to increase speed.**

The untrained subject engages in regression (conscious rereading) and back-skipping (subconscious rereading via misplacement of fixation) for up to 30 percent of total reading time.

**C) Synopsis:** **You must use conditioning drills to increase horizontal peripheral vision span and the number of words registered per fixation.**

Untrained subjects use central focus but not horizontal peripheral vision span during reading, foregoing up to 50 percent of their words per fixation (the number of words that can be perceived and "read" in each fixation).

You will 1) learn technique, 2) learn to apply techniques with speed through conditioning, then 3) learn to test yourself with reading for comprehension.

These are separate, and your adaptation to the sequencing depends on keeping them separate. Do not worry about comprehension if you are learning to apply a motor skill with speed, for example. The adaptive sequence is: technique; technique with speed; comprehensive reading testing.

As a general rule, you will need to practice technique at 3x the speed of your ultimate target reading speed. Thus, if you currently read at 300 wpm and your target reading speed is 900 wpm, you will need to practice technique at 1,800 words-per-minute, or 6 pages per minute (10 seconds per page).

We will cover two main techniques in this introduction:

1) Trackers and Pacers (to address A and B above)

2) Perceptual Expansion (to address C)

First: Determining Baseline

To determine your current reading speed, take your practice book (which should lay flat when open on a table) and count the number of words in five lines. Divide this number of words by five, and you have your average number of words-per-line.

Example: 62 words/5 lines = 12.4, which you round to 12 words-per-line

Next, count the number of text lines on five pages and divide by five to arrive at the average number of lines per page. Multiply this by average number of words-per-line, and you have your average number of words per page.

Example: 154 lines/5 pages = 30.8, rounded to 31 lines per page x 12 words-per-line = 372 words per page

Mark your first line and read with a timer for one minute exactly -- do not read faster than normal, and read for comprehension. After exactly one minute, multiply the number of lines by your average words-per-line to determine your current words-per-minute (wpm) rate.

Second: Trackers and Pacers

Regression, back-skipping, and the duration of fixations can be minimized by using a tracker and pacer. To illustrate the importance of a tracker-did you use a pen or finger when counting the number of words or lines in above baseline calculations? If you did, it was for the purpose of tracking-using a visual aid to guide fixation efficiency and accuracy. Nowhere is this more relevant than in conditioning reading speed by eliminating such inefficiencies.

For the purposes of this article, we will use a pen. Holding the pen in your dominant hand, you will underline each line (with the cap on), keeping your eye fixation above the tip of the pen. This will not only serve as a tracker, but it will also serve as a pacer for maintaining consistent speed and decreasing fixation duration. You may hold it as you would when writing, but it is recommended that you hold it under your hand, flat against the page.

Practice using the pen as a tracker and pacer. Underline each line, focusing above the tip of the pen. DO NOT CONCERN YOURSELF WITH COMPREHENSION. Keep each line to a maximum of one second, and increase the speed with each subsequent page. Read, but under no circumstances should you take longer than one second per line.

Repeat the technique, keeping each line to no more than one-half second (two lines for a single "one-one-thousand"). Some will comprehend nothing, which is to be expected. Maintain speed and technique-you are conditioning your perceptual reflexes, and this is a speed exercise designed to facilitate adaptations in your system. Do not decrease speed. One-half second per line for three minutes; focus above the pen and concentrate on technique with speed. Focus on the exercise, and do not daydream.

Third: Perceptual Expansion

If you focus on the center of your computer screen (focus relating to the focal area of the fovea in within the eye), you can still perceive and register the sides of the screen. Training peripheral vision to register more effectively can increase reading speed over 300 percent. Untrained readers use up to one-half of their peripheral field on margins by moving from first word to last, spending 25-50 percent of their time "reading" margins with no content.

To illustrate, let us take the hypothetical one line: "Once upon a time, students enjoyed reading four hours a day." If you were able to begin your reading at "time" and finish the line at "four," you would eliminate 6 of 11 words, more than doubling your reading speed. This concept is easy to implement and combine with the tracking and pacing you've already practiced.

Use the pen to track and pace at a consistent speed of one line per second. Begin one word in from the first word of each line, and end one word in from the last word.

DO NOT CONCERN YOURSELF WITH COMPREHENSION. Keep each line to a maximum of one second, and increase the speed with each subsequent page. Read, but under no circumstances should you take longer than one second per line.

Use the pen to track and pace at a consistent speed of one line per second. Begin two words in from the first word of each line, and end two words in from the last word.

Begin at least three words in from the first word of each line, and end three words in from the last word. Repeat the technique, keeping each line to no more than one-half second (two lines for a single "one-one-thousand").

Some will comprehend nothing, which is to be expected. Maintain speed and technique-you are conditioning your perceptual reflexes, and this is a speed exercise designed to facilitate adaptations in your system. Do not decrease speed. One-half second per line for three minutes; focus above the pen and concentrate on technique with speed. Focus on the exercise, and do not daydream.

Fourth: Calculate New WPM Reading Speed

Mark your first line and read with a timer for one minute exactly. Read at your fastest comprehension rate. Multiply the number of lines by your previously determined average words-per-line to get determine your new words-per-minute (wpm) rate.

Congratulations on completing your cursory overview of some of the techniques that can be used to accelerate human cognition (defined as the processing and use of information).

**Final recommendations:** If used for study, it is recommended that you not read three assignments in the time it would take you to read one, but rather, read the same assignment three times for exposure and recall improvement, depending on relevancy to testing.